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A Nice Cup of Tea (English-Russian)

By George Orwell. “Evening Standard”, 12 January 1946. (taken from “The Collected Essays”, “Journalism and Letters of George Orwell”, Volume 3, 1943-45, Penguin ISBN, 0-14-00-3153-7) http://www.booksatoz.com/witsend/tea/orwell.htm

If you look up “tea” in the first cookery book that comes to hand you will probably find that it is unmentioned; or at most you will find a few lines of sketchy instructions which give no ruling on several of the most important points.
This is curious, not only because tea is one of the main stays of civilization in this country, as well as in Eire, Australia and New Zealand, but because the best manner of making it is the subject of violent disputes.

When I look through my own recipe for the perfect cup of tea, I find no fewer than eleven outstanding points. On perhaps two of them there would be pretty general agreement, but at least four others are acutely controversial. Here are my own eleven rules, every one of which I regard as golden:

First of all, one should use Indian or Ceylonese tea. China tea has virtues which are not to be despised nowadays — it is economical, and one can drink it without milk — but there is not much stimulation in it. One does not feel wiser, braver or more optimistic after drinking it. Anyone who has used that comforting phrase ‘a nice cup of tea’ invariably means Indian tea.

Secondly, tea should be made in small quantities — that is, in a teapot. Tea out of an urn is always tasteless, while army tea, made in a cauldron, tastes of grease and whitewash. The teapot should be made of china or earthenware. Silver or Britanniaware teapots produce inferior tea and enamel pots are worse; though curiously enough a pewter teapot (a rarity nowadays) is not so bad.

Thirdly, the pot should be warmed beforehand. This is better done by placing it on the hob than by the usual method of swilling it out with hot water.

Fourthly, the tea should be strong. For a pot holding a quart, if you are going to fill it nearly to the brim, six heaped teaspoons would be about right. In a time of rationing, this is not an idea that can be realized on every day of the week, but I maintain that one strong cup of tea is better than twenty weak ones. All true tea lovers not only like their tea strong, but like it a little stronger with each year that passes — a fact which is recognized in the extra ration issued to old-age pensioners.

Fifthly, the tea should be put straight into the pot. No strainers, muslin bags or other devices to imprison the tea. In some countries teapots are fitted with little dangling baskets under the spout to catch the stray leaves, which are supposed to be harmful. Actually one can swallow tea-leaves in considerable quantities without ill effect, and if the tea is not loose in the pot it never infuses properly.

Sixthly, one should take the teapot to the kettle and not the other way about. The water should be actually boiling at the moment of impact, which means that one should keep it on the flame while one pours. Some people add that one should only use water that has been freshly brought to the boil, but I have never noticed that it makes any difference.

Seventhly, after making the tea, one should stir it, or better, give the pot a good shake, afterwards allowing the leaves to settle.

Eighthly, one should drink out of a good breakfast cup — that is, the cylindrical type of cup, not the flat, shallow type. The breakfast cup holds more, and with the other kind one’s tea is always half cold before one has well started on it.

Ninthly, one should pour the cream off the milk before using it for tea. Milk that is too creamy always gives tea a sickly taste.

Tenthly, one should pour tea into the cup first. This is one of the most controversial points of all; indeed in every family in Britain there are probably two schools of thought on the subject. The milk-first school can bring forward some fairly strong arguments, but I maintain that my own argument is unanswerable. This is that, by putting the tea in first and stirring as one pours, one can exactly regulate the amount of milk whereas one is liable to put in too much milk if one does it the other way round.

Lastly, tea — unless one is drinking it in the Russian style — should be drunk without sugar. I know very well that I am in a minority here. But still, how can you call yourself a true tealover if you destroy the flavour of your tea by putting sugar in it? It would be equally reasonable to put in pepper or salt. Tea is meant to be bitter, just as beer is meant to be bitter. If you sweeten it, you are no longer tasting the tea, you are merely tasting the sugar; you could make a very similar drink by dissolving sugar in plain hot water.

Some people would answer that they don’t like tea in itself, that they only drink it in order to be warmed and stimulated, and they need sugar to take the taste away. To those misguided people I would say: Try drinking tea without sugar for, say, a fortnight and it is very unlikely that you will ever want to ruin your tea by sweetening it again.
These are not the only controversial points to arise in connexion with tea drinking, but they are sufficient to show how subtilized the whole business has become. There is also the mysterious social etiquette surrounding the teapot (why is it considered vulgar to drink out of your saucer, for instance?) and much might be written about the subsidiary uses of tealeaves, such as telling fortunes, predicting the arrival of visitors, feeding rabbits, healing burns and sweeping the carpet. It is worth paying attention to such details as warming the pot and using water that is really boiling, so as to make quite sure of wringing out of one’s ration the twenty good, strong cups of that two ounces, properly handled, ought to represent.

В январе 1946 года, в британской газете «Evening Standart» вышла статья автора знаменитой антиутопии «1984» Джорджа Оруэлла о том, как правильно заваривать и пить чай.

Под заголовком «A Nice Cup of Tea» Оруэлл разместил 11 советов, которые он посчитал наиболее важными для процесса приготовления напитка, широко любимого на просторах не только Британии, но и России. Вот эти 11 бесценных советов в изложении самого Оруэлла.


Если вы поищите в первой попавшейся под руку поваренной книге чай, то, вероятно, вы не найдете даже его упоминания. В крайнем случае, вы обнаружите несколько строк отрывочных инструкций, которые не дают никаких указаний относительно наиболее важных моментов его приготовления.

Это любопытно не только потому, что чай является одной из основ цивилизации в Великобритании, Ирландии, Австралии и Новой Зеландии, но и потому, что лучший способ его приготовления является предметом ожесточенных споров в этих странах.

Когда я смотрю на свой собственный рецепт приготовления идеальной чашки чая, я нахожу в нем по крайней мере 11 особенно важных моментов. Пожалуй, два из них являются общепринятыми, а четыре — весьма спорными. Тем не менее, вот мои 11 правил, каждое из которых я считаю золотым:

1. Во-первых, заваривать необходимо индийский или цейлонский чай.
Китайский чай имеет преимущества, которые в наши дни уже не принято презирать — он экономичный и его можно пить без молока. Однако он почти не оказывает стимулирующего эффекта. Вы не почувствуете себя мудрее, смелее или оптимистичнее после того, как выпьете его. Любой, кто использовал для утешения фразу: «Выпьем по чашечке чая?», неизменно имел в виду именно индийский.

2. Во-вторых, чай необходимо заваривать в небольших количествах, а именно — в чайнике.
Чай из бойлера всегда безвкусный, а армейский чай, сваренный в котле, имеет вкус масла и побелки. Заварочный чайник должен быть сделан из фарфора или фаянса. Вкус чая из серебряных или жестяных чайников им уступает, а в эмалированной посуде он получается еще хуже. Однако, любопытно, что оловянный чайник, хоть и является редкостью в наше время, отнюдь неплох.

3. В-третьих, заварочный чайник предварительно должен быть нагрет.
И лучше это сделать на плите, нежели использовать популярный метод полоскания его горячей водой.

4. В-четвертых: чай должен быть крепким.
Для литрового чайника, если вы собираетесь заполнить его почти до краев, шести чайных ложек заварки с горкой будет достаточно. Отдавая должное норме, это не та идея, которую можно воплощать каждый день недели, но я все еще утверждаю, что одна чашка крепкого чая лучше, чем 20 чашек слабого. Все истинные любители чая не только любят пить его крепким, но и понемногу увеличивают крепость с каждым своим прожитым годом.

5. В-пятых, чай необходимо класть прямо в чайник.
Никаких ситечек, пакетиков или других устройств, лишающих чай его свободы. В некоторых странах чайники оснащены маленькими корзинками, свисающим под носиком, чтобы отлавливать случайные чаинки, которые считаются вредными. На самом деле, вы можете проглотить сколько угодно чаинок в разумных пределах без какого-либо вредного эффекта, а если чай не будет свободно плавать в чайнике, то он никогда не заварится правильным образом.

6. В-шестых, заварочный чайник следует принести к чайнику для кипячения, а не наоборот.
Дело в том, что во время заварки вода должна непосредственно кипеть. Лучше всего, если один человек будет держать чайник для заварки, а другой наливать кипяток прямо с огня. Некоторые люди добавляют, что следует использовать только воду, которая только что вскипела, но я никогда не замечал никакой разницы с давно закипевшей водой.

7. В-седьмых, после заварки чай следует размешать.
Или, что еще лучше, хорошенько встряхнуть чайник, после чего дать чаинкам осесть на дно.

8. В-восьмых, чай следует пить из кружки цилиндрического типа, а не плоской или кружки с мелкой глубиной.
Нужная кружка вмещает больше, а в других к моменту начала чаепития чай наполовину остывает.

9. В-девятых, следует отделить сливки и молоко.
Слишком сливочное молоко придаст чаю нездоровый вкус.

10. В-десятых, первым в чашку следует наливать чай.
Это один из самых спорных моментов всего процесса. В каждой семье Британии существует по этому поводу две противоборствующие школы. Школа, наливающая первым молоко, может привести в свою поддержку несколько сильных аргументов, но я утверждаю, что мой собственный аргумент совершенно неопровержим. Он состоит в том, что пока кто-то наливает вам в чай молоко, перемешивая его ложкой вы можете регулировать его количество. Если же сперва вам налили молоко, то его легко может оказаться слишком много.

11. В-последних, чай — если только вы не пьете его по-русски — нужно пить без сахара.
Я прекрасно понимаю, что окажусь здесь в меньшинстве. Но все же, как вы можете называть себя настоящим любителем чая, если вы уничтожаете его вкус и аромат, кладя туда сахар? С таким же успехом вы могли бы положить в него перец или соль. Чай должен быть горьким так же, как пиво обязано быть горьким. Если вы подсластите его, то вы будете дегустировать не чай, а сахар. Вы можете сделать почти такой же напиток, положа сахар в простую горячую воду.

Некоторые люди ответили бы, что они не любят чай как таковой, а пьют его только, чтобы согреться и получить стимулирующий эффект, а сахар им нужен лишь чтобы скрыть вкус чая. Для этих заблудших душ я порекомендую вот что — попробуйте попить чай без сахара, к примеру, в течение двух недель, и очень маловероятно, что после этого вы снова когда-нибудь захотите угробить ваш чай, подсластив его.


Это далеко не все спорные моменты, которые возникают в связи с употреблением чая, но и этих достаточно, чтобы показать, насколько мудреным стало это занятие. Вокруг чаепития существует таинственный социальный этикет (почему, к примеру, считается вульгарным пить из своего блюдца?), а еще больше можно написать по поводу использования чайной заварки в целях гадания, предсказания посетителей, лечения ожогов или чистки ковров. Стоит особо обратить внимание на такие детали, как нагревание заварочного чайника и наливание в него кипящей воды, чтобы с полной уверенностью сказать, что вы выжали все до конца из вашей доброй порции чая.

Очевидно, Оруэлл не стал затрагивать тему того, сколько времени необходимо заваривать черный чай, так как она показалась ему очевидной. Сегодня на рынке представлено гораздо больше сортов чая и заваривать их все надо по-разному, поэтому эта проблема стала более актуальной. Пример с китайским чаем, который упоминает Оруэлл в начале статьи, в этом отношении показателен — он даже не уточняет, какой именно его сорт имеет в виду (возможно, вообще красный), так как он, вероятно, не был в них хорошо осведомлен. Так вот, что касается времени заварки обычного черного чая — недавние исследования британских ученых показали, что в идеале оно должно составлять 5-6 минут.

“Nice cup of tea”. Binnie Hale. 1935.

Great-grandmother kills 12-foot gator with one shot (English-Russian)

Sources: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2018/09/18/texas-great-grandmother-kills-12-foot-gator-one-shot/1354201002/


A Texas woman says she shot and killed a 12-foot, 580-pound alligator at her ranch Monday and that she suspects the massive animal ate her miniature horse.

Even before she shot the alligator, Judy Cochran was having a memorable 2018, she told USA TODAY. In May, she became the mayor of Livingston, Texas, and earlier in September she became a great-grandmother.

Now, she’s telling the story of her memorable hunt: She killed the gator with one shot, plans to eat the meat and hopes to display the gator’s «humongous» head in her office.

She said she doesn’t think of herself as a hunter, and she doesn’t want to seem like she’s bragging about the harvest. But she’s been looking for this gator for some time.

A miniature horse of her’s went missing about three years ago, and the animal’s remains were never found.
«So we suspected a gator … it would have to be a big gator,” she said.

Since then, multiple alligators have been found on her property, which includes several miles of riverfront. But it wasn’t until Monday that an animal large enough was located.

There’s a limited season for hunting alligators in Polk County, Texas — just 20 days in September, she said. The gator must be captured on a hook before it is shot, she said.

There was a baited hook on her property, and on Monday, she received a call: A gator was on the hook.

After she shot the animal it was immediately taken to a taxidermist, she said. She said the resources from the alligator are being put to good use: The hide is being made into boots and its meat will be eaten, she said.

The gator was found in the same pond where Cochran’s then 5-year-old grandson shot a gator in 2009, according to the Houston Chronicle. That gator was even bigger: 800-pounds, 12-foot-6-inches, the Chronicle reported.

Американка Джуди Кокран из штата Техас в мае 2018 год стала мэром г. Ливингстона, в сентябре — прабабушкой, а намедни одним выстрелом убила на своем ранчо огромного аллигатора длиной более 3,6 метра и весом более 260 килограммов, который раньше украл её пони.

Джули сказала, что мясо убитого аллигатора съест, из кожи сделает сапоги, а голову убитой рептилии повесит в своем офисе.

В Техасе охотиться на аллигаторов можно только в течение 20 дней в сентябре. При этом рептилия прежде, чем ее застрелят, должна быть поймана на крючок.

Джуди Кокран повезло: подозреваемый в краже ее любимого пони крупный аллигатор был не только замечен, но и пойман на крючок в дни, разрешенные для охоты на рептилий.

Nine things you didn’t know about hedgehogs

Sourse: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/1LhxyHd5T2V6ytW8gWb5Gz7/nine-things-you-didn-t-know-about-hedgehogs

Small, spiky and seriously endangered, the hedgehog is a much-loved mammal in Britain, and further afield. Four hundred years ago, however, things were very different. Making History looks at why we haven’t always been such fans of the prickly erinaceid…

And there’s certainly more to learn about our spiky friend. Here are a few points (or should that be spines?) you might not know about the humble hedgehog.

1. We used to think hedgehogs were witches
Back in the Middle Ages, hedgehogs were seen as harbingers of doom: spotting a hedgehog meant bad things were about to land on your plate! Historian of witchcraft, Professor Owen Davies, explains how our predecessors also believed that witches could shapeshift, transforming themselves into hares and “sometimes hedgehogs”. Therefore, what looked like a hedgehog could actually be “a witch in disguise, out there once again causing harm and mischief.”

2. We used to believe that hedgehogs drank milk… directly from the cow
As if being tarred with the witchcraft brush wasn’t bad enough, the poor hedgehog was also “considered vermin up until the 20th Century,” says Owen Davies. One of the reasons, according to Owen, is that they were “widely thought to suck the udders of cows, leaving the cows dry in the morning”. Needless to say, they weren’t too popular with farmers. In actual fact however, hedgehogs are lactose intolerant! Why someone didn’t stay up to check whether or not the rumour was true, we’ll never know.

3. Shakespeare used “hedgehog” as an insult
In his play King Richard III, the Bard uses “hedgehog” as a barb. Anne says to Richard, “Dost grant me, hedgehog? Then, God grant me too; Thou mayst be damned for that wicked deed! O, he was gentle, mild and virtuous.” In A Midsummer Night’s Dream Shakespeare aligns the hedgehog with a whole host of unpleasant creatures: “You spotted snakes with double tongue, Thorny hedgehogs, not be seen; Newts and blindworms, do no wrong; Come not near our Fairy Queen.” And one of the witches in Macbeth includes the hedgehog in her incantation: “Thrice and once the hedge-pig whined.”

4. Mrs Tiggy-Winkle changed the way the world felt about hedgehogs
The Tale of Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle is a children’s book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter, published in 1905. Natural history writer Hugh Warwick, author of A Prickly Affair: The Charm of the Hedgehog, puts changing attitudes down to Potter’s eponymous character: “Before 1905,” when Mrs Tiggy-Winkle reached our bookshelves, “pretty well every reference in stories are of hedgehogs either discarded, dismissed” or a portent. “After 1905,” Hugh says, “everybody loves the hedgehog.”

5. Hedgehogs used to be known as “urchins”
The Middle English name for our spiny friend was “heyghoge”, with the “heyg” a reference to its love of hedgerows, and “hoge” deriving from its piglike snout. Other early names for the animal include “urchin” (due to its likeness to the sea creature), “hedgepig” and “furze-pig” (with “furze” being the Old English for gorse). And an extra fact for you: the collective noun for a group of hedgehogs is an “array”.

6. Hedgehogs might have walked with the dinosaurs
“There are 14 different species of hedgehog,” says Hugh Warwick, “which range across from Ireland to China; from Norway to South Africa – so it’s an old world species.” In fact, the African pygmy hedgehog is one of the most primitive mammals on our planet, with some scientists arguing that it survived the dinosaurs! Although paleontologists may not be able to agree on just how long ago the hedgehog’s first ancestors walked the earth, we know from fossil samples that the creature has changed very little over millions of years.

7. Hedgehog numbers are rapidly declining
According to the Mammal Society, one in five British mammals is at risk of extinction. And the poor hedgehog is one of them, with its numbers down 70% in 20 years. It’s disappearing from our countryside about as fast as tigers are dying out worldwide, and there are now thought to be fewer then one million left in the UK.

8. Hedgehogs have thousands of spines
An adult hedgehog has up to 7,000 spines, which it can raise when it feels threatened. Each spine lasts about a year before it drops out, to be replaced by a shiny new spike.

9. Hedgehogs are self-anointing
Hedgehogs have an intriguing habit of chewing and licking certain toxic substances – like poisonous plants (that they are immune to), toad skin or faecal matter. Yuck! They make a frothy saliva, which they then spread on their own spines. We’re not quite sure why the hedgehog does this: it might be an attempt to camouflage its own scent from predators, or it might be that spreading toxins on its spikes is a form of added protection.

Russia’s answer to James Bond: did he trigger Putin’s rise to power?


Sourse: https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2018/sep/11/russias-answer-to-james-bond-did-he-trigger-putins-rise-to-power-seventeen-moments-spring

He was a brooding spy whose adventures gripped 80 million viewers every night – including President Brezhnev. But did Max Otto von Stierlitz also inspire Putin?

On 11 August 1973, a TV series was premiered throughout the Soviet Union that stopped the people in their tracks. Seventeen Moments of Spring was broadcast at 7.30pm over 12 consecutive nights, and this black-and-white second world war spy drama amassed an astonishing 50 to 80 million viewers per episode.

For the 70 minutes of each show, city streets emptied, power station output surged and crime halted. Leonid Brezhnev, the Soviet leader, apparently changed the time of Central Committee meetings in order to catch every episode, so addicted was he to this slow-burning tale of a Soviet spy who infiltrates the Nazis in order to foil Operation Sunrise. That was the name given to the real-life secret negotiations between German and American intelligence, which aimed to forge a separate peace in the dying months of the war.

“I don’t remember a time when I wasn’t aware of this series,” says Dina Newman, a journalist with the BBC World Service who was born in Moscow. “It came out when I was eight. It’s something I grew up with. Everybody at school talked about it. It quickly became part of our cultural experience, our folklore.”

Like so much Soviet cultural output of the 70s, Seventeen Moments began as propaganda, part of the reforms initiated by Yuri Andropov, the recently appointed head of the KGB, to improve the security agency’s image.

“Andropov felt the KGB’s authority had been damaged by Nikita Kruschev’s de-Stalinisation reforms,” says Newman. “He wanted to bring prestige and mystique back to the work of secret agents, in the hope of attracting educated, young recruits.”

Andropov commissioned a series of books, songs and films to glorify the work of agents serving abroad. One was a piece of detective fiction by Yulian Semyonov. “Andropov had read Semyonov’s earlier novels,” says Jeremy Duns, an espionage expert and writer of spy novels. “He opened the KGB archives to him – including the classified files on Operation Sunrise.”

Written in just two weeks, Seventeen Moments was commissioned as a TV series before it had even been published, under the guidance of one of the few female Soviet directors, Tatyana Lioznova. She was “assisted” by Andropov’s deputy and two KGB operatives brought in as “technical advisers”. Despite these incredibly restrictive conditions, Lioznova transformed propaganda into art, bringing in the brooding, handsome actor Vyacheslav Tikhonov to play the show’s double-agent hero, Max Otto von Stierlitz.

Her other masterstroke was to commission the Soviet composer Mikael Tariverdiev to write the series’s score, which went way beyond atmospheric backdrop. “Tariverdiev’s music brings out Stierlitz’s inner life,” says musician and producer Stephen Coates. “One of the reasons it appealed to Soviet audiences at the time is its themes of loss and separation.”

Coates has been a fan of Tariverdiev’s music since he first heard it in a Moscow cafe seven years ago. “Haunting, poignant and magical – it blew me away,” he says. “I got in contact with his widow, Vera, and we became friends.” Coates is now reissuing Tariverdiev’s works through the Earth Recordings label, and has organised a marathon screening of a subtitled Seventeen Moments at Pushkin House, London, this month.

“One reason the series still stands up,” he says, “is that it retains an undercurrent of fear, of people being watched. In showing Hitler’s Germany, it was actually depicting Russia. People go about their business, but they’re never really free.”

“Mikael wasn’t too thrilled about working on a spy series,” says Vera. “But he was intrigued by the possibilities. The plot required a continual musical theme. He agreed to work on the project only after finding the answer to that. He was introduced to an intelligence agent and discovered the details of his romantic inner life, which was nostalgia, the longing for a distant homeland.”

There is a memorable six-minute scene in Seventeen Moments where Stierlitz and his wife meet in a German cafe. Not a word is spoken: there is just Tariverdiev’s mournful piano theme. The scene is based on real events. Soviet agents working abroad would be taken to see their loved ones, but couldn’t communicate with them. It was a demonstration of control: “We have her, she’s alive, stay loyal.”

The scene, says Dina Newman, “went straight to the heart of the Soviet people. There is a coldness to the series. Much of its running time is taken up with wartime archive footage the Soviet army commandeered from the Germans. But its emotional side is carried by Tariverdiev’s music. It became an aspect of Stierlitz’s character. In this soulless world, it gave him a soul.

“The main song, Moments, is based on a poem by Robert Rozhdestvensky about how each moment in life has profound significance. You could interpret it as being about the life of a foreign agent but it was written about life under a dictatorship, where any moment you could lose your position, your life, or betray someone and be promoted. It’s a philosophy born of Soviet life.”

From that first broadcast Stierlitz became something of a Soviet folk hero, the anti-James Bond. “He’s a response to how the KGB was depicted as Smersh in the Bond films,” says Coates. “He’s very different from Bond. He spends more time gazing through windows than crashing through them. There’s a lot of smoking, a lot of being haunted by the motherland.”

“I’d be fascinated to know if John le Carré has seen Seventeen Moments,” says Jeremy Duns. “Stierlitz is more like George Smiley than a Russian James Bond: a methodical, unemotional guy who silently observes while everyone else is digging their own grave.”

Every year, the series was rebroadcast throughout Warsaw Pact nations on 9 May, the holiday that commemorates the surrender of the German army in 1945, and Stierlitz jokes became common currency, sending up the actor Tikhonov’s humourless, deadpan delivery. Yet the show did help to increase the Soviet people’s faith in their secret services, advancing the belief that the USSR had single-handedly won the war.

The series had a curious afterlife in the chaos that marked the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 1991, a St Petersburg film-maker made a short film about a local councillor, who’d previously worked as a Soviet spy in East Germany. One scene re-enacted the ending of Seventeen Moments, when Stierlitz drives back to Berlin. The councillor was filmed behind the wheel of his GAZ Volga with Tarivadiev’s Seventeen Moments theme, Somewhere Far Away, playing in the background.

The councillor was Vladimir Putin. “It stuck,” says Newman. “People began to associate Putin with Stierlitz. Putin never said directly whether Stierlitz inspired him to become a spy. But he was 21 when the series was first screened and he joined the KGB two years later.”

The association certainly didn’t do Putin any harm. In 1999, an opinion poll in the Kommersant newspaper asked readers who they’d like to see as Russia’s next president. Stierlitz came second, next to Marshal Zhukov, the Soviet Red Army general. The cover of the newspaper’s weekly supplement carried a picture of Stierlitz with the caption: “President – 2000.”

“It proved that the second world war remained Russia’s highest point of achievement,” says Newman, “with military force still hugely respected. The previous president, Yeltsin, was boozy, jokey, generous. Now people wanted somebody a bit less Russian.”

Amid the dishonesty and corruption of late-90s Russia, Putin stood apart – in no small way because he was seen as a Stierlitz-type figure. “Power should be mysterious and magic. Especially in Russia,” his former adviser, Gleb Pavolvsky, told Vanity Fair in October 2000. “Putin answers that need perfectly.”

Eighteen years on, there can be few Russians who still think of Putin as Stierlitz, but the series remains ingrained in Russian culture. “Everybody still knows Seventeen Moments, even teenagers,” says Vera. “They’ve forgotten the name of the author, but the series? Yes, they all know it well.”

Британский кинокритик Эндрю Мэйл объявил сериал «Семнадцать мгновений весны» причиной, по КОТОРОЙ к ВЛАСТИ Пришёл Президент России Владимир ПУТИН.

Об этом он написал в The Guardian во вторник, 11 сентября.

Мэйл считает, что двенадцатисерийный телефильм Татьяны Лиозновой был создан по заказу КГБ и был призван повысить престиж работников комитета, в том числе разведчиков, и привлечь в орган новых людей.
Главный персонаж сериала, штандартенфюрер Макс Отто фон Штирлиц, советский разведчик, стал, по мнению кинокритика, героем в СССР, а анекдоты про него — частью советского фольклора.
Мэйл добавил, что после распада СССР фильм «Семнадцать мгновений весны» получил «любопытное продолжение». В 1991 году петербургский режиссер выпустил короткометражную ленту о местном политическом деятеле, который ранее служил разведчиком в Восточной Германии. Этим человеком был Владимир Путин.
Одна из сцен короткометражки повторяла концовку сериала Лиозновой. «И это привязалось. Люди начали ассоциировать Путина со Штирлицем. Путин никогда прямо не говорил, вдохновил ли Штирлиц его на то, чтобы стать шпионом. Но ему был 21 год, когда вышел сериал, и он поступил в КГБ через два года после этого», — цитирует автор статьи журналистку Дину Ньюман.
Мэйл также напомнил о номере газеты «Коммерсантъ» 1999 года с опросом для читателей — кого бы они хотели видеть следующим президентом России. На втором месте оказался Штирлиц, его же фото поместили на обложку еженедельного вложения с подписью «Президент-2000».
Автор сделал вывод, что приход Путина к власти находится в определенной связи с народной любовью к Штирлицу и к тому, что Путина ассоциировали с персонажем. Однако он отметил, что сейчас в России мало кто продолжает видеть это сходство.

Gustav III of Sweden’s coffee experiment

«Одна девочка пила чертовски много кофе…»

Gustav III of Sweden (1746–1792) was determined to prove the negative health effects of coffee.

Gustav III of Sweden’s coffee experiment was a twin study ordered by the king to study the health effects of coffee. Although the authenticity of the event has been questioned, the experiment, which was conducted in the second half of the 18th century, failed to prove that coffee was a dangerous beverage.

Говорят, что как только вы попадаете домой к шведам, вам тут же наливают чашку кофе. Да к тому же, кофе спас Швецию от алкоголизма.

Coffee first arrived in Sweden around 1674, but was little used until the turn of the 18th century when it became fashionable among the wealthy. In 1746, a royal edict was issued against coffee and tea due to «the misuse and excesses of tea and coffee drinking». Heavy taxes were levied on consumption, and failure to pay the tax on the substance resulted in fines and confiscation of cups and dishes. Later, coffee was banned completely; despite the ban, consumption continued.

Gustav III, who viewed coffee consumption as a threat to the public health and was determined to prove its negative health effects, ordered a scientific experiment to be carried out.

The experiment

The king ordered the experiment to be conducted using two identical twins. Both of the twins had been tried for the crimes they had committed and condemned to death. Their sentences were commuted to life imprisonment on the condition that one of the twins drink three pots of coffee, and the other drink the same amount of tea, every day for the rest of their lives.

Two physicians were appointed to supervise the experiment and report its finding to the king. Unfortunately, both doctors died, presumably of natural causes, before the experiment was completed. Gustav III, who was assassinated in 1792, also died before seeing the final results. Of the twins, the tea drinker was the first to die, at age 83; the date of death of the surviving coffee drinker is unknown.

In 1794, the government once again tried to impose a ban on coffee. The ban, which was renewed multiple times until the 1820s, was never successful in stamping out coffee-drinking. Once the ban was lifted, coffee became a dominant beverage in Sweden, which since has been one of the countries with the highest coffee consumption per capita in the world.

The experiment has jokingly been called «the first Swedish clinical trial».

Когда новый модный напиток — кофе — добрался до Швеции, король Густав III (царствовавший во второй половине XVIII века) усмотрел в нём серьёзнейшую угрозу для здоровья и даже жизни нации. Чтобы подкрепить свои подозрения с помощью науки, он приказал провести двойной эксперимент.

Для эксперимента было решено пожертвовать здоровьем двух близнецов, и так уже приговорённых к смертной казни. Им было велено каждый день до конца своих дней выпивать по три кружки. Один должен был пить чай, другой — кофе. И только при таком условии казнь заменялась пожизненным заключением. За ходом эксперимента наблюдали два врача.

В результате и врачи, и сам Густав, так и умерли, не дождавшись окончания эксперимента. Из близнецов первым умер тот, что пил чай. Ему было 83 года.

More about coffee: There Might Be A Huge Scientific Benefit To Drinking Coffee Regularly — http://guff.com/there-might-be-a-huge-scientific-benefit-to-drinking-coffee-regularly

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